Structural and chemical evolution in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries revealed by synchrotron techniques
동기 방사 기술 은 리튬 이온 전지 층 상 산화물 음극 의 구조 와 화학 진 화 를 밝 혔 다.
Estructura y evolución química del cátodo de óxido en capas en baterías de iones de litio reveladas por la técnica de Radiación Sincrotrón
Structure and Chemical Evolution of Layered Oxide Cathode in Lithium Ion Battery Revealed by Synchrotron Radiation Technology
техника синхротронного излучения выявила строение и химическую эволюцию слоисто - оксидного катода литиевого ионного элемента
Guannan Qian 钱冠男 ¹ ², Junyang Wang 汪君洋 ¹ ³, Hong Li 李泓 ³, Zi-Feng Ma 马紫峰 ², Piero Pianetta ¹, Linsen Li 李林森 ² ⁴, Xiqian Yu 禹习谦 ³, Yijin Liu 刘宜晋 ¹
¹ Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
² Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Device Research Center (SEED), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
中国 上海 上海电化学能源器件工程技术研究中心(SEED),上海交通大学化学化工学院,上海交通大学变革性分子前沿科学中心 200240
³ Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
中国 北京 北京材料基因工程高精尖创新中心,中国科学院可再生能源重点实验室,北京新能源材料与器件重点实验室,中国科学院物理研究所 100190
⁴ Shanghai Jiao Tong University Sichuan Research Institute, Chengdu 610213 China
中国 成都 上海交通大学四川研究院 610213
National Science Review, 17 August 2021

Rechargeable battery technologies have revolutionized the electronics, transportation, and grid energy storage. While many materials are being researched for battery applications, layered transition metal oxides (LTMO) are the dominating cathode candidate with remarkable electrochemical performance. Yet, daunting challenges persist in the quest for further battery developments targeting lower cost, longer lifespan, improved energy density, and enhanced safety. This is in part due to the intrinsic complexity in real-world batteries, featuring sophisticated interplay among microstructural, compositional, and chemical heterogeneities, which motivates tremendous research efforts using state-of-the-art analytical techniques.

In this research field, synchrotron techniques are identified as a suite of effective methods for advanced battery characterization in a nondestructive manner with sensitivities to the lattice, electronic, and morphological structures. This article provides a holistic overview of the cutting-edge developments in synchrotron-based research on LTMO battery cathode materials. We discuss the complexity and evolution of LTMO’s material properties upon battery operation and review recent synchrotron-based research works that address the frontier challenges and provide novel insights in this field. Finally, we formulate a perspective on the future directions of synchrotron-based battery research, involving the next-generation X-ray facilities and advanced computational developments.
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