Optical scanning endoscope via a single multimode optical fiber
단일 모드 광섬유를 통한 광학 스캔 내시경
Endoscopio de escaneo óptico a través de fibra monomodo
Endoscope à balayage optique par fibre optique monomode
Оптический сканирующий эндоскоп через одномодовое оптическое волокно
Guangxing Wu 吴光兴 ¹ ², Runze Zhu 朱润泽 ², Yanqing Lu 卢延庆 ², Minghui Hong 洪明辉 ³, Fei Xu 徐飞 ²
¹ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576, Singapore
² College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
中国 南京 南京大学 现代工程与应用科学学院 人工微结构科学与技术协同创新中心
³ Pen-Tung Sah Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Xiamen University, 33 Qunxian Road, Xiamen 361005, China
中国 厦门 厦门大学 萨本栋微纳米研究院
Opto-Electronic Science, 22 March 2024

Optical endoscopy has become an essential diagnostic and therapeutic approach in modern biomedicine for directly observing organs and tissues deep inside the human body, enabling non-invasive, rapid diagnosis and treatment. Optical fiber endoscopy is highly competitive among various endoscopic imaging techniques due to its high flexibility, compact structure, excellent resolution, and resistance to electromagnetic interference.

Over the past decade, endoscopes based on a single multimode optical fiber (MMF) have attracted widespread research interest due to their potential to significantly reduce the footprint of optical fiber endoscopes and enhance imaging capabilities. In comparison with other imaging principles of MMF endoscopes, the scanning imaging method based on the wavefront shaping technique is highly developed and provides benefits including excellent imaging contrast, broad applicability to complex imaging scenarios, and good compatibility with various well-established scanning imaging modalities.

In this review, various technical routes to achieve light focusing through MMF and procedures to conduct the scanning imaging of MMF endoscopes are introduced. The advancements in imaging performance enhancements, integrations of various imaging modalities with MMF scanning endoscopes, and applications are summarized. Challenges specific to this endoscopic imaging technology are analyzed, and potential remedies and avenues for future developments are discussed.
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