A universal spray printing strategy to prepare gradient hybrid architectures
그래디언트 하이브리드 아키텍처를 준비하기 위한 보편적인 스프레이 프린팅 전략
Una estrategia de impresión por pulverización universal para preparar arquitecturas híbridas degradadas
Une stratégie universelle d'impression par pulvérisation pour préparer des architectures hybrides à gradient
Универсальная стратегия распылительной печати для создания градиентных гибридных архитектур
Lingyu Du, Songshan Bi 毕嵩山, Yang Hu 胡阳, Rui Wang 王瑞, Jiacai Zhu, Minghui Zhang 张明慧, Zhiqiang Niu 牛志强
Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin, P. R. China
中国 天津 南开大学化学学院 新能源转化与存储交叉科学中心 先进能源材料化学教育部重点实验室
Carbon Energy, 21 March 2022

Functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have attracted tremendous attention due to their unique properties and structures. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare scalable FGMs by a universal, cost-effective, and highly efficient method. Here, a strategy of combining in situ concentration regulation and spraying is developed to fabricate continuously gradient composite films (GCFs), where the component gradient variation can be well controlled.

This strategy is universal and versatile, which is beneficial to inducing different components into GCFs with gradient distributions and further constructing them with diverse configurations on various substrates. The gradient design endows the composite films with excellent mechanical strength and gradient electron transport pathways, which ensures that GCFs directly serve as the electrodes in electrochemical devices.

As a proof of concept, free-standing GCFs based on V2O5 nanomaterials are used as cathodes of aqueous zinc-ion batteries. The resultant devices deliver superior electrochemical performances in comparison with the counterparts of homogeneous case. Therefore, this universal strategy provides a promising route in the scalable production of FGMs and further extends their applications in various fields.
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