Improved spatiotemporal resolution of anti-scattering super-resolution label-free microscopy via synthetic wave 3D metalens imaging
합성파 3차원 금속 렌즈 영상을 통해 산란 방지 초해상도 무표시 현미경의 시공 해상도를 높인다
Mejorar la resolución espacio - temporal del microscopio anti - dispersión y súper resolución sin etiqueta a través de imágenes de lentes metálicas tridimensionales de ondas sintéticas
Améliorer la résolution spatio - temporelle des microscopes non marqués à super résolution anti - diffusion grâce à l'imagerie par lentille métallique tridimensionnelle à ondes synthétiques
Повышение пространственно - временного разрешения антирассеивающих сверхразрешений с помощью трехмерных металлических линз с синтетическими волнами
Yuting Xiao 肖语婷 ¹ ² ⁴, Lianwei Chen 陈潋微 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Mingbo Pu 蒲明博 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Mingfeng Xu 徐明峰 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Qi Zhang 张其 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Yinghui Guo 郭迎辉 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Tianqu Chen 陈天衢 ¹ ² ⁴, Xiangang Luo 罗先刚 ¹ ² ⁴
¹ National Key Laboratory of Optical Field Manipulation Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院光电技术研究所光场调控科学技术全国重点实验室
² State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano-Fabrication and Micro-Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院光电技术研究所 微细加工光学技术国家重点实验室
³ Research Center on Vector Optical Fields, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院光电技术研究所 矢量光场研究中心
⁴ School of Optoelectronics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
中国 北京 中国科学院大学光电学院
Opto-Electronic Science, 5 January 2024

Super-resolution (SR) microscopy has dramatically enhanced our understanding of biological processes. However, scattering media in thick specimens severely limits the spatial resolution, often rendering the images unclear or indistinguishable. Additionally, live-cell imaging faces challenges in achieving high temporal resolution for fast-moving subcellular structures.

Here, we present the principles of a synthetic wave microscopy (SWM) to extract three-dimensional information from thick unlabeled specimens, where photobleaching and phototoxicity are avoided. SWM exploits multiple-wave interferometry to reveal the specimen’s phase information in the area of interest, which is not affected by the scattering media in the optical path. SWM achieves ~0.42 λ/NA resolution at an imaging speed of up to 106 pixels/s. SWM proves better temporal resolution and sensitivity than the most conventional microscopes currently available while maintaining exceptional SR and anti-scattering capabilities.

Penetrating through the scattering media is challenging for conventional imaging techniques. Remarkably, SWM retains its efficacy even in conditions of low signal-to-noise ratios. It facilitates the visualization of dynamic subcellular structures in live cells, encompassing tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lipid droplets, mitochondria, and lysosomes.
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