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Transformation of agriculture on the Loess Plateau of China toward green development
中国黄土高原农业转型绿色发展
緑の発達に向けた中国の黄土高原における農業の変容
녹색 개발을 향한 중국 황토의 농업 변화
TRANSFORMACIÓN DE LA AGRICULTURA EN LA MESETA DE LOESS DE CHINA HACIA EL DESARROLLO VERDE
TRANSFORMATION DE L'AGRICULTURE SUR LE PLATEAU DU LOESS EN CHINE VERS UN DEVELOPPEMENT VERT
ТРАНСФОРМАЦИЯ СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА НА ЛЕСНОЙ ПЛАТЕ КИТАЯ В СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ЗЕЛЕНОГО РАЗВИТИЯ
Gang HE 何刚 ¹, Zhaohui WANG 王朝辉 ¹, Jianbo SHEN 申建波 ², Zhenling CUI 崔振岭 ², Fusuo ZHANG 张福锁 ²
¹ College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
中国 杨凌 西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院
² College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
中国 北京 中国农业大学资源与环境学院 国家农业绿色发展研究院
Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering, 19 November 2021
Abstract

Loess Plateau of China is a typical dryland agricultural area. Agriculture there has transformed from food shortage toward green development over the past seven decades, and has achieved world-renowned achievements.

During 1950–1980, the population increased from 42 to 77 million, increasing grain production to meet food demand of rapid population growth was the greatest challenge. Engineering measures such as terracing and check-dam were the crucial strategies to increase crop production. From 1981 to 2000, most of agronomic measures played a key role in increasing crops yield, and a series of policy support has benefited millions of smallholders. As expected, these measures and policies greatly increased crop production and basically achieved food security; but, low per capita GDP (only about 620 USD in 2000) was still a big challenge. During 2001–2015, the increase in agricultural and non-agricultural income together supported the increase in farmer income to 5781 USD·yr⁻¹.

Intensive agriculture that relies heavily on chemicals increased crop productivity by 56%. Steadfast policy support such as “Grain for Green Program” had an overwhelming advantage in protecting the natural ecological environment. In the new era, the integration of science and technology innovations, policy support and positive societal factors will be the golden key to further improve food production, protect environment, and increase smallholder income.
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