High-resolution visible imaging with piezoelectric deformable secondary mirror: experimental results at the 1.8-m adaptive telescope
压电可变形次镜高分辨率可见光成像:1.8 m 自适应望远镜的实验结果
圧電変形可能サブミラーの高分解能可視光イメージング:1.8 m適応望遠鏡の実験結果
압전 가변형 차경 고해상도 가시광선 영상: 1.8 m 자체 적응 망원경의 실험 결과
Imagen de luz visible de alta resolución del espejo secundario deformable piezoeléctrico: resultados experimentales del telescopio adaptativo de 1.8 m
Imagerie en lumière visible haute résolution avec miroir secondaire déformable piézoélectrique: résultats expérimentaux avec un télescope adaptatif de 1.8 m
Изображение видимого света с высоким разрешением с помощью пьезоэлектрических деформируемых субзеркал: результаты экспериментов с адаптивным телескопом 1.8 m
Youming Guo 郭友明 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Kele Chen 陈克乐 ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵, Jiahui Zhou 周家辉 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Zhengdai Li 李政岱 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Wenyu Han 韩文雨 ¹ ² ³ ⁴, Xuejun Rao 饶学军 ¹ ² ³, Hua Bao 鲍华 ¹ ² ³, Jinsheng Yang 杨金生 ¹ ² ³, Xinlong Fan 樊新龙 ¹ ² ³, Changhui Rao 饶长辉 ¹ ² ³ ⁴
¹ The Key Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院自适应光学重点实验室
² Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院光电技术研究所
³ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
中国 北京 中国科学院大学
⁴ School of Electronic, Electrical and Commutation Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
中国 北京 中国科学院大学电子电气与通信工程学院
⁵ National Key Laboratory of Optical Field Manipulation Science and Technology, Chengdu 610209, China
中国 成都 中国科学院 光场调控科学技术全国重点实验室
Opto-Electronic Advances, 18 October 2023

Integrating deformable mirrors within the optical train of an adaptive telescope was one of the major innovations in astronomical observation technology, distinguished by its high optical throughput, reduced optical surfaces, and the incorporation of the deformable mirror. Typically, voice-coil actuators are used, which require additional position sensors, internal control electronics, and cooling systems, leading to a very complex structure. Piezoelectric deformable secondary mirror technologies were proposed to overcome these problems.

Recently, a high-order piezoelectric deformable secondary mirror has been developed and installed on the 1.8-m telescope at Lijiang Observatory in China to make it an adaptive telescope. The system consists of a 241-actuator piezoelectric deformable secondary mirror, a 192-sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and a multi-core-based real-time controller. The actuator spacing of the PDSM measures 19.3 mm, equivalent to approximately 12.6 cm when mapped onto the primary mirror, significantly less than the voice-coil-based adaptive telescopes such as LBT, Magellan and VLT.

As a result, stellar images with Strehl ratios above 0.49 in the R band have been obtained. To our knowledge, these are the highest R band images captured by an adaptive telescope with deformable secondary mirrors. Here, we report the system description and on-sky performance of this adaptive telescope.
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